## How precise is my measurement?

March 28, 20183 comments

Some might argue that measurement is a blend of skepticism and faith. While time constraints might make you lean toward faith, some healthy engineering skepticism should bring you back to statistics. This article reviews some practical statistics that can help you satisfy one common question posed by skeptical engineers: “How precise is my measurement?” As we’ll see, by understanding how to answer it, you gain a degree of control over your measurement time.

An accurate, precise...

## Embedded World 2018 - More Videos!

March 27, 20181 comment

After the interview videos last week, this week I am very happy to release two more videos taken at Embedded World 2018 and that I am proud of.

For both videos, I made extensive use of my two new toys, a Zhiyun Crane Gimbal and a Sony a6300 camera.

The use of a gimbal like the Zhiyun makes a big difference in terms of making the footage look much more stable and cinematographic.

As for the Sony camera, it takes fantastic slow-motion footage and...

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 8. Control Loop Test-bed

March 21, 2018

This part in the series will consider the signals, measurements, analyses and configurations for testing high-speed low-latency feedback loops and their controllers. Along with basic test signals, a versatile IFFT signal generation scheme will be discussed and implemented. A simple controller under test will be constructed to demonstrate the analysis principles in preparation for the design and evaluation of specific controllers and closed-loop applications.

Additional design...

## Embedded World 2018 - The Interviews

March 21, 2018

Once again this year, I had the chance to go to Embedded World in Nuremberg Germany.  And once again this year, I brought my video equipment to try and capture some of the most interesting things at the show.

Something new this year, I asked Jacob Beningo if he would partner with me in doing interviews with a few vendors.  I would operate the camera while Jacob would ask the right questions to the vendors to make them talk about the key products/features that...

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 7. Turbo-charged DSP Oscillators

January 5, 20187 comments
This article will look at some DSP Sine-wave oscillators and will show how an FPGA with limited floating-point performance due to latency, can be persuaded to produce much higher sample-rate sine-waves of high quality.

Comparisons will be made between implementations on Intel Cyclone V and Cyclone 10 GX FPGAs. An Intel numerically controlled oscillator

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 6. Self-Calibration Related.

December 3, 20177 comments

This article will consider the engineering of a self-calibration & self-test capability to enable the project hardware to be configured and its basic performance evaluated and verified, ready for the development of the low-latency controller DSP firmware and closed-loop applications. Performance specifications will be documented in due course, on the project website here.

• Part 6: Self-Calibration, Measurements and Signalling (this part)
• Part 5:

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 5. Some FPGA Aspects.

November 14, 2017
This part of the on-going series of articles looks at a variety of aspects concerning the FPGA device which provides the high-speed maths capability for the low-latency controller and the arbitrary circuit generator application. In due course a complete specification along with  application  examples will be maintained on the project website here.

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 4. Engineering of Evaluation Hardware

October 10, 2017
Following on from the previous abstract descriptions of an arbitrary circuit emulation application for low-latency feedback controllers, we now come to some aspects in the hardware engineering of an evaluation design from concept to first power-up. In due course a complete specification along with  application  examples will be maintained on the project website.

## Feedback Controllers - Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 3. Sampled Data Aspects

September 9, 2017
Some Design and Simulation Considerations for Sampled-Data Controllers

This article will continue to look at some aspects of the controllers and electronics needed to create emulated physical circuits with real-world connectivity and will look at the issues that arise in sampled-data controllers compared to continuous-domain controllers. As such, is not intended as an introduction to sampled-data systems.

## Finally got a drone!

August 28, 20172 comments

As a reader of my blog, you already know that I have been making videos lately and thoroughly enjoying the process.  When I was in Germany early this summer (and went 280 km/h in a porsche!) to produce SEGGER's 25th anniversary video, the company bought a drone so we could get an aerial shot of the party (at about the 1:35 mark in this video).  Since then, I have been obsessing on buying a drone for myself and finally made the move a few weeks ago - I acquired a used DJI...

## Introduction to FPGA Technology

May 12, 2011
Overview

FPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. An FPGA is an integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed and configured by the embedded system developer in the field after it has been manufactured. FPGA is a semi-conductor device which is not limited to any pre-defined hardware function; it is rather highly flexible in its functionality and may be configured by the embedded system developer according to his design requirements. FPGAs use pre-built logic blocks and programmable...

## Back from Embedded World 2019 - Funny Stories and Live-Streaming Woes

March 1, 20191 comment

When the idea of live-streaming parts of Embedded World came to me,  I got so excited that I knew I had to make it happen.  I perceived the opportunity as a win-win-win-win.

• win #1 - Engineers who could not make it to Embedded World would be able to sample the huge event,
• win #2 - The organisation behind EW would benefit from the extra exposure
• win #3 - Lecturers and vendors who would be live-streamed would reach a (much) larger audience
• win #4 - I would get...

## VGA Output in 7 Slices. Really.

September 25, 20122 comments

Ridiculous? Read on - I will show you how to generate VGA timing in seven XilinxR Spartan3R slices.Some time ago I needed to output video to a VGA monitor for my Apple ][ FPGA clone.  Obviously (I thought), VGA's been done before and all I had to do was find some Verilog code and drop it into my design.  As is often the case (with me anyway), the task proved to be very different from my imagined 'couple of hours to integrate the IP'.I found some example code for my board.  I...

## StrangeCPU #3. Instruction Slides - The Strangest CPU Yet!

March 18, 201311 comments
Summary:

Decoding instructions with a Sliding Window system.  0-Bit Sliding Register Windows.

Table of Contents:

## Signed serial-/parallel multiplication

February 16, 2014

Keywords: Binary signed multiplication implementation, RTL, Verilog, algorithm

Summary
• A detailed discussion of bit-level trickstery in signed-signed multiplication
• Algorithm based on Wikipedia example
• Includes a Verilog implementation with parametrized bit width
Signed serial-/parallel multiplication

A straightforward method to multiply two binary numbers is to repeatedly shift the first argument a, and add to a register if the corresponding bit in the other argument b is set. The...

## Verilog vs VHDL

June 13, 2011

Introduction

Verilog and VHDL are two industry standard Hardware Description Languages (HDL) that are used in writing programs for electronic integrated circuits (ICs) i.e., ASIC and FPGA. Many system designers face this issue: which HDL language to choose – Verilog or VHDL. The answer is by no means easy or trivial. Both of these languages are widely compared and contrasted without any clearly defined victor. Both of them have their own merits and demerits and have different...

## Little to no benefit from C based HLS

April 4, 2014

Last updated 07-Nov-2015

As I write this I am on a plane and my destination is EELive 2014 where I am going to give a talk hardware design: the grunge era.  It is a shotgun introduction to three alternative hardware description languages (alt.hdl). The three languages briefly introduced in the talk are: bsv, chisel, and myhdl.  The goal of the talk is simply to raise awareness of the three...

## PC and SP for a small CPU

July 23, 2013

Ok, let's make a small stack-based CPU.

I will start where the rubber meets the road - the PC/stack subsystem that I like referring to as the 'legs'. As usual, I will present a design with a twist.

Not having a large design team, deadlines and million-dollar fab runs when designing CPUs creates a truly different environment. I can actually sit at the kitchen table and doodle around with CPU designs to my heart's content. I can try really ridiculous approaches, and work without a...

## Already 3000+ Attendees Registered for the Upcoming Embedded Online Conference

February 14, 2020

Chances are you already know, through the newsletter or banners on the Related sites, about the upcoming Embedded Online Conference.

Chances are you also already know that you have until the end of the month of February to register for free.

And chances are that you are one of the more than 3000 pro-active engineers who have already registered.

But If you are like me and have a tendency to do tomorrow what can be done today, maybe you haven't registered yet.  You may...

## Discrete-Time PLLs, Part 1: Basics

December 1, 20159 comments

Design Files: Part1.slx

Hi everyone,

In this series of tutorials on discrete-time PLLs we will be focusing on Phase-Locked Loops that can be implemented in discrete-time signal proessors such as FPGAs, DSPs and of course, MATLAB.

In the first part of the series, we will be reviewing the basics of continuous-time baseband PLLs and we will see some useful mathematics that will give us insight into the inners working of PLLs. In the second part, we will focus on...

## Launch of Youtube Channel: My First Videos - Embedded World 2017

April 5, 201721 comments

I went to Embedded World 2017 in Nuremberg with an ambitious plan; I would make video highlights of several exhibits (booths) to be presented to the *Related sites audience.  I would try to make the vendors focus their pitch on the essential in order to produce a one to three minutes video per booth.

So far my experience with making videos was limited to family videos, so I knew I had lots of reading to do and lots of Youtube videos and tutorials to watch.  Trade shows are...

## New Comments System (please help me test it)

October 4, 201618 comments

I thought it would take me a day or two to implement, it took almost two weeks...

But here it is, the new comments systems for blogs, heavily inspired by the forum system I developed earlier this year.

Which means that:

• You can easily add images, either by drag and drop or through the 'Insert Image' button
• You can add MathML, TeX and ASCIImath equations and they will be rendered with Mathjax
• You can add code snippets and they will be highlighted with highlights.js
• You can edit...

## 3 Good News

March 9, 20161 comment
Good News #1

Last week, I announced a new and ambitious reward program that will be funded by the new Vendors Directory.

## New Design - Finally!

April 29, 20093 comments

For those of you who are familiar with my work, you already know that FPGARelated.com is not the only engineering web site that I publish. I also publish DSPRelated.com and EmbeddedRelated.com. Those two web sites have been on a new design for quite some time now and porting the new design to FPGARelated.com has been on my todo list for too long!  I am glad today to announce that I have finally found the time to apply the more modern design to FPGARelated.com.

Thank you...