## Designing a FPGA Micro Pt1 - Start The Clock

Last time I talked about state machines and micro’s inside FPGAs and why you may want to consider having a micro. So lets say you have decided you want or need a micro in your FPGA design. Where will you start? Well there are lots to pick from but one option is to design your own. So with that in mind I decided to set myself the challenge of doing just that.

## Grandiose Delusions

Recently on the MyHDL mailing-list there have been discussions about some other immature Python/HDL tools. In these discussion it was mentioned, how over the years, there has not been a strong set of open-source IP developed using MyHDL. For those that might be unfamiliar with the term IP (intellectual property) it is a term widely used in digital hardware to refer to reusable hardware components or blocks.

Many design languages have relied on that first big...

## State Machine ‘v’ Micro in a FPGA

Designing a system and considering if to have a FPGA in the first place is something a engineer should always consider. However one thing that people look to do is designing a microcontroller on a FPGA and in this post I want to consider why we would do it at all and what would be the real consideration for doing this.

We first look at what's available in the microcontroller world. We have a vast range from tiny 8bit 6 pin devices right the way up to monster 32bit devices. These...

## My VHDL <= monpjc; Journey

I always like to start my first blog on a website with a bit of a introduction as to who I am and what I’ll be writting about. I feel this gives you the reader a opportunity to see where I’m coming from and understand a little of my point of view. So when I was asked to come and start blogging on FPGARelated I wondered what I should say. So for my first blog its all about how me, aka monpjc, and how I got into VHDL.

It started a long time ago when I was working for a...

## MyHDL FPGA Tutorial I (LED Strobe)

Last updated 05-Nov-2015

IntroductionFrom many perspectives the latest FPGA offerings from 'X' and 'A' are large devices - mucho programmable logic resources. Even the devices that one can get for sub \$10 are relatively large. Because of the size of these FPGAs they are implemented using an HDL. To manually configure each circuit would be a long and tedious task. It is not feasible to program an FPGA by manually defining the logic for each LUT and manually...

## FPGA or DSP Processor - Parameters to Make the Right Choice

Introduction

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) has a huge global market that is growing fast day by day with rapidly evolving sophisticated modern electronics applications like 3G wireless, voice over internet protocol (VoIP), multimedia systems, radar and satellite systems, medical systems, image-processing applications and consumer electronics. These sophisticated DSP applications pose many conflicting challenges to system designers and application developers in terms of cost and...

## Introduction to FPGA Technology

OverviewFPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. An FPGA is an integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed and configured by the embedded system developer in the field after it has been manufactured. FPGA is a semi-conductor device which is not limited to any pre-defined hardware function; it is rather highly flexible in its functionality and may be configured by the embedded system developer according to his design requirements. FPGAs use pre-built logic blocks and programmable...

## USB-FPGA : Introduction

This blog is an introduction to a series of blogs I hope to write. The blogs will cover the design and experiences I had on a project that spanned the last 6 years. The project was the development of an USB FPGA board and the supporting gateware, firmware, and software. The project has had different levels of activity over the years, ranging from none to some, but it has been an ongoing project, albeit, during sleepless nights. Lately, I have ported the HDL (gateware)...

## MyHDL ... MyPWM

The PWM topic appears to be popular lately on the fpgarelated site. This is coincidence, but I typically find the topic of modulating and demodulating signals interesting. For digital systems it is always entertaining to play with PWMs. The following PWM RTL description is quite a bit different than the PWM module described by Anton Babushkin. The module presented here is a minimal PWM engine defined at design time (i.e. not run-time).

As...

## Polynomial Math

Elliptic Curve Cryptography is used as a public key infrastructure to secure credit cards, phones and communications links. All these devices use either FPGA's or embedded microprocessors to compute the algorithms that make the mathematics work. While the math is not hard, it can be confusing the first time you see it. This blog is an introduction to the operations of squaring and computing an inverse over a finite field which are used in computing Elliptic Curve arithmetic. ...

## Elliptic Curve Key Exchange

Elliptic Curve Cryptography is used to create a Public Key system that allows two people (or computers) to exchange public data so that both sides know a secret that no one else can find in a reasonable time. The simplest method uses a fixed public key for each person. Once cracked, every message ever sent with that key is open. More advanced key exchange systems have "perfect forward secrecy" which means that even if one message key is cracked, no other message will...

## My VHDL <= monpjc; Journey

I always like to start my first blog on a website with a bit of a introduction as to who I am and what I’ll be writting about. I feel this gives you the reader a opportunity to see where I’m coming from and understand a little of my point of view. So when I was asked to come and start blogging on FPGARelated I wondered what I should say. So for my first blog its all about how me, aka monpjc, and how I got into VHDL.

It started a long time ago when I was working for a...

## One Clock Cycle Polynomial Math

Error correction codes and cryptographic computations are most easily performed working with $GF(2^n)$ polynomials. By using very special values of $n$ we can build circuits which multiply and square in one clock cycle on an FPGA. These circuits come about by flipping back and forth between a standard polynomial basis and a normal basis representation of elements in $GF(2^n)$.

A normal basis is yet another form of polynomial but instead of adding powers of $\beta$ we add...

## Polynomial Inverse

One of the important steps of computing point addition over elliptic curves is a division of two polynomials. When working in $GF(2^n)$ we don't have large enough powers to actually do a division, so we compute the inverse of the denominator and then multiply. This is usually done using Euclid's method, but if squaring and multiplying are fast we can take advantage of these operations and compute the multiplicative inverse in just a few steps.

The first time I ran across this...

## Elliptic Curve Digital Signatures

A digital signature is used to prove a message is connected to a specific sender. The sender can not deny they sent that message once signed, and no one can modify the message and maintain the signature. The message itself is not necessarily secret. Certificates of authenticity, digital cash, and software distribution use digital signatures so recipients can verify they are getting what they paid for.

Since messages can be of any length and mathematical algorithms always use fixed...

## Choosing an Implementation Approach

What one man can do, another can do!--The Edge (1997) Choose the hill you want to die on.--Common saying attributed to the United States Marine Corps Planning out an FPGA ImplementationIn my first article, I gave a high-level view of the project that brings me into the world of FPGA development. At the end, I tried to break down the areas of development that would be involved, and some of the knowledge and expertise I would probably have to gain in order to make it a...

## Polynomial Inverse

One of the important steps of computing point addition over elliptic curves is a division of two polynomials. When working in $GF(2^n)$ we don't have large enough powers to actually do a division, so we compute the inverse of the denominator and then multiply. This is usually done using Euclid's method, but if squaring and multiplying are fast we can take advantage of these operations and compute the multiplicative inverse in just a few steps.

The first time I ran across this...

## MyHDL ... MyPWM

The PWM topic appears to be popular lately on the fpgarelated site. This is coincidence, but I typically find the topic of modulating and demodulating signals interesting. For digital systems it is always entertaining to play with PWMs. The following PWM RTL description is quite a bit different than the PWM module described by Anton Babushkin. The module presented here is a minimal PWM engine defined at design time (i.e. not run-time).

As...

## Designing a FPGA Micro Pt2 - Clock and Counter build and test.

So last time I looked and talked about designing my own PIC12F509. I concluded by talking shortly about the clock that is used inside the chip. If you have not read this it may be a good time to jump back and read what I have written so far. I’ll be putting links back at the top of every blog from now on to help.State Machine ‘v’ Micro in a FPGADesigning a FPGA Micro Pt1 - Start The ClockOk so this last week I started writing the VHDL code for my PIC core that I’ll be...

## Choosing an Implementation Approach

What one man can do, another can do!--The Edge (1997) Choose the hill you want to die on.--Common saying attributed to the United States Marine Corps Planning out an FPGA ImplementationIn my first article, I gave a high-level view of the project that brings me into the world of FPGA development. At the end, I tried to break down the areas of development that would be involved, and some of the knowledge and expertise I would probably have to gain in order to make it a...

## Elliptic Curve Digital Signatures

A digital signature is used to prove a message is connected to a specific sender. The sender can not deny they sent that message once signed, and no one can modify the message and maintain the signature. The message itself is not necessarily secret. Certificates of authenticity, digital cash, and software distribution use digital signatures so recipients can verify they are getting what they paid for.

Since messages can be of any length and mathematical algorithms always use fixed...

## Grandiose Delusions

Recently on the MyHDL mailing-list there have been discussions about some other immature Python/HDL tools. In these discussion it was mentioned, how over the years, there has not been a strong set of open-source IP developed using MyHDL. For those that might be unfamiliar with the term IP (intellectual property) it is a term widely used in digital hardware to refer to reusable hardware components or blocks.

Many design languages have relied on that first big...

## Polynomial Math

Elliptic Curve Cryptography is used as a public key infrastructure to secure credit cards, phones and communications links. All these devices use either FPGA's or embedded microprocessors to compute the algorithms that make the mathematics work. While the math is not hard, it can be confusing the first time you see it. This blog is an introduction to the operations of squaring and computing an inverse over a finite field which are used in computing Elliptic Curve arithmetic. ...

## My VHDL <= monpjc; Journey

I always like to start my first blog on a website with a bit of a introduction as to who I am and what I’ll be writting about. I feel this gives you the reader a opportunity to see where I’m coming from and understand a little of my point of view. So when I was asked to come and start blogging on FPGARelated I wondered what I should say. So for my first blog its all about how me, aka monpjc, and how I got into VHDL.

It started a long time ago when I was working for a...