SEGGER's 25th Anniversary Video
Chances are you will find this video more interesting to watch if you take five minutes to first read the story of the week I spent at SEGGER's headquarters at the end of June.
The video is only a little more than 2 minutes long. If you decide to watch it, make sure to go full screen and I would really love to read your thoughts about it in the comments down bellow. Do you think a video like this succeeds in making the viewer want to learn more about the company?...
Linear Feedback Shift Registers for the Uninitiated, Part II: libgf2 and Primitive Polynomials
Last time, we looked at the basics of LFSRs and finite fields formed by the quotient ring \( GF(2)[x]/p(x) \).
LFSRs can be described by a list of binary coefficients, sometimes referred as the polynomial, since they correspond directly to the characteristic polynomial of the quotient ring.
Today we’re going to look at how to perform certain practical calculations in these finite fields. I maintain a Python library on bitbucket called...
Went 280km/h (174mph) in a Porsche Panamera in Germany!
Those of you who've been following my blog lately already know that I am going through some sort of midlife crisis that involves going out there to meet people and make videos. It all started with Embedded World early this year, then continued at ESC Boston a couple of months ago and the latest chapter just concluded as I returned from Germany after spending a week at SEGGER's headquarters to produce a video to highlight their 25th anniversary.
Linear Feedback Shift Registers for the Uninitiated, Part I: ExPralite Monks and Finite Fields
Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.
— Évariste Galois, May 29, 1832
I was going to call this short series of articles “LFSRs for Dummies”, but thought better of it. What is a linear feedback shift register? If you want the short answer, the Wikipedia article is a decent introduction. But these articles are aimed at those of you who want a little bit deeper mathematical understanding,...
Going back to Germany!
A couple of blog posts ago, I wrote that the decision to go to ESC Boston ended up being a great one for many different reasons. I came back from the conference energized and really happy that I went.
These feelings were amplified a few days after my return when I received an email from Rolf Segger, the founder of SEGGER Microcontroller (check out their very new website), asking if I would be interested in visiting their headquarters...
ESC Boston's Videos are Now Up
In my last blog, I told you about my experience at ESC Boston and the few videos that I was planning to produce and publish. Here they are, please have a look and any feedback (positive or negative) is appreciated.
Short HighlightThis is a very short (one minute) montage of some of the footage that I shot at the show & conference. In future shows, I absolutely need to insert clips here and there of engineers saying a few words about the conference (why they...
Back from ESC Boston
NOT going to ESC Boston would have allowed me to stay home, in my comfort zone.
NOT going to ESC Boston would have saved me from driving in the absolutely horrible & stressful Boston traffic1.
NOT going to ESC Boston would have saved me from having to go through a full search & questioning session at the Canada Customs on my return2.
2017/06/06 update: Videos are now up!So two days...
Launch of Youtube Channel: My First Videos  Embedded World 2017
I went to Embedded World 2017 in Nuremberg with an ambitious plan; I would make video highlights of several exhibits (booths) to be presented to the *Related sites audience. I would try to make the vendors focus their pitch on the essential in order to produce a one to three minutes video per booth.
So far my experience with making videos was limited to family videos, so I knew I had lots of reading to do and lots of Youtube videos and tutorials to watch. Trade shows are...
New Comments System (please help me test it)
I thought it would take me a day or two to implement, it took almost two weeks...
But here it is, the new comments systems for blogs, heavily inspired by the forum system I developed earlier this year.
Which means that:
 You can easily add images, either by drag and drop or through the 'Insert Image' button
 You can add MathML, TeX and ASCIImath equations and they will be rendered with Mathjax
 You can add code snippets and they will be highlighted with highlights.js
 You can edit...
Use DPLL to Lock Digital Oscillator to 1PPS Signal
IntroductionThere are occasions where it is desirable to lock a digital oscillator to an external time reference such as the 1PPS (One Pulse Per Second) signal output from a GPS receiver. One approach would be to synchronize a fixed frequency oscillator on the leading edge of the 1PPS signal. In many cases, this will result in adequate performance. However, in situations where simple synchronization does not provide adequate performance, digital phaselock techniques can be applied to a...
Spread the Word and Run a Chance to Win a Bundle of Goodies from Embedded World
Do you have a Twitter and/or Linkedin account?
If you do, please consider paying close attention for the next few days to the EmbeddedRelated Twitter account and to my personal Linkedin account (feel free to connect). This is where I will be posting lots of updates about how the EmbeddedRelated.tv live streaming experience is going at Embedded World.
The most successful this live broadcasting experience will be, the better the chances that I will be able to do it...
VHDL tutorial  combining clocked and sequential logic
In an earlier article on VHDL programming ("VHDL tutorial" and "VHDL tutorial  part 2  Testbench", I described a design for providing a programmable clock divider for a ADC sequencer. In this example, I showed how to generate a clock signal (ADCClk), that was to be programmable over a series of fixed rates (20MHz, 10MHz, 4MHz, 2MHz, 1MHz and 400KHz), given a master clock rate of 40MHz. A reader of that article had written to ask if it was possible to extend the design to...
Feedback Controllers  Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 9. Closing the lowlatency loop
It's time to put together the DSP and feedback control sciences, the evaluation electronics, the Intel Cyclone floatingpoint FPGA algorithms and the builtin control loop testbed and evaluate some example designs. We will be counting the nanoseconds and looking for textbook performance in the creation of emulated hardware circuits. Along the way, there is a printed circuit board (PCB) issue to solve using DSP.
Fig 1. The evaluation platform
Additional design...
Project introduction: Digital Filter Blocks in MyHDL and their integration in pyFDA
Hi everyone! After a lot of hesitation and several failed attempts, I have finally entered the world of blogging. A little about myself : My name is Sriyash Caculo and I’m a third year undergrad student at BITS Pilani K.K. Birla Goa Campus pursuing a major in Electronics and Instrumentation engineering. Being an electronics engineer, I developed an interest in Digital Signal Processing and its implementation on hardware.
This blogpost is the first of many to come for the...
Running Average
The running average filter is a useful way to reduce noise in a system. One project I recently worked on required a 4 times frequency output from an encoder input. The problem was the encoder is mounted to the wheel of an old truck and bearing noise was making the original algorithm generate way too many pulses. The original algorithm worked, but the noise on the input made it useless.
I first implemented the moving average based on
Sensors Expo  Trip Report & My Best Video Yet!
This was my first time at Sensors Expo and my second time in Silicon Valley and I must say I had a great time.
Before I share with you what I find to be, by far, my best 'highlights' video yet for a conference/trade show, let me try to entertain you with a few anecdotes from this trip. If you are not interested by my stories or maybe don't have the extra minutes needed to read them, please feel free to skip to the end of this blog post to watch the...
Dealing With Fixed Point Fractions
Fixed point fractional representation always gives me a headache because I screw it up the first time I try to implement an algorithm. The difference between integer operations and fractional operations is in the overflow. If the representation fits in the fixed point result, you can not tell the difference between fixed point integer and fixed point fractions. When integers overflow, they lose data off the most significant bits. When fractions overflow, they lose data off...
Linear Feedback Shift Registers for the Uninitiated, Part II: libgf2 and Primitive Polynomials
Last time, we looked at the basics of LFSRs and finite fields formed by the quotient ring \( GF(2)[x]/p(x) \).
LFSRs can be described by a list of binary coefficients, sometimes referred as the polynomial, since they correspond directly to the characteristic polynomial of the quotient ring.
Today we’re going to look at how to perform certain practical calculations in these finite fields. I maintain a Python library on bitbucket called...
Feedback Controllers  Making Hardware with Firmware. Part 7. Turbocharged DSP Oscillators
This article will look at some DSP Sinewave oscillators and will show how an FPGA with limited floatingpoint performance due to latency, can be persuaded to produce much higher samplerate sinewaves of high quality.Comparisons will be made between implementations on Intel Cyclone V and Cyclone 10 GX FPGAs. An Intel numerically controlled oscillator
Spline interpolation
A cookbook recipe for segmented y=f(x) 3rdorder polynomial interpolation based on arbitrary input data. Includes Octave/Matlab design script and Verilog implementation example. Keywords: Spline, interpolation, function modeling, fixed point approximation, data fitting, Matlab, RTL, Verilog
IntroductionSplines describe a smooth function with a small number of parameters. They are wellknown for example from vector drawing programs, or to define a "natural" movement path through given...
How to start in FPGA development?  Simulation software tools
IntroductionThis post is related to the first post How to start in FPGA development?  Some tips which aimed to show other options to work on the simulation of your project. In this first approach will be explained some advantages and disadvantages of using Xilinx ISE (+ModelSim) or using ModelSim, Precision and Xilinx ISE. And finally my opinion of which are the ones I...
DiscreteTime PLLs, Part 1: Basics
Design Files: Part1.slx
Hi everyone,
In this series of tutorials on discretetime PLLs we will be focusing on PhaseLocked Loops that can be implemented in discretetime signal proessors such as FPGAs, DSPs and of course, MATLAB.
In the first part of the series, we will be reviewing the basics of continuoustime baseband PLLs and we will see some useful mathematics that will give us insight into the inners working of PLLs. In the second part, we will focus on...
The Spartans
The latest release of the Xilinx Spartan family is the Spartan6 line of FPGAs. It has been awhile since the last major Spartan released, the Spartan3, but this last year Xilinx released the Spartan6. The Xilinx Spartan family is the low cost FPGAs compared to the higher cost and high performance Virtex family. The Spartan family is derived from the Virtex architecture with some changes to reduce the cost. The Spartan3 FPGAs were derived from the VirtexII architecture. Since the Spartan3...
How to start in FPGA development?  Some tips
IntroductionThe aim of this tutorial is to show some useful tips for people like me that one day started from zero to work with FPGA's. Why FPGA's? Because they are easy to use and they are not too expensive, and they are usually used in lab courses to let students "play" with them.
1: How to choose the right FPGA?As you may know there are a lot of different FPGA's, brands and models. How to choose the right one? It's very difficult to say that before knowing which will be the...
Sharedmultiplier polyphase FIR filter
Keywords: FPGA, interpolating decimating FIR filter, sample rate conversion, shared multiplexed pipelined multiplier
Discussion, working code (parametrized Verilog) and Matlab reference design for a FIR polyphase resampler with arbitrary interpolation and decimation ratio, mapped to one multiplier and RAM.
IntroductionA polyphase filter can be as straightforward as multirate DSP ever gets, if it doesn't turn into a semideterministic, threelegged little dance between input, output and...
StrangeCPU #4. Microcode
Summary:Sliding windows containing runs of microcode.
Table of Contents:
Part 1: A new CPU  technology review, reexamination of the premises; StrangeCPU concepts; x86 notes.

Part 2: SlidingWindow Token Machines, an indepth exploration of this curious technology; ARM notes.
Halfband filter on Xilinx FPGA
1. DSP48 Slice in Xilinx FPGAThere are many DSP48 Slices in most Xilinx® FPGAs, one DSP48 slice in Spartan6® FPGA is shown in Figure 1, the structure may different depending on the device, but broadly similar.
Figure 1: A whole DSP48A1 Slice in Spartan6 (www.xilinx.com)
2. Symmetric Systolic Halfband FIRFigure 2: Symmetric Systolic Halfband FIR Filter
3. Twochannel Symmetric Systolic Halfband FIRFigure 3: 2Channel...
Linear Feedback Shift Registers for the Uninitiated, Part I: ExPralite Monks and Finite Fields
Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.
— Évariste Galois, May 29, 1832
I was going to call this short series of articles “LFSRs for Dummies”, but thought better of it. What is a linear feedback shift register? If you want the short answer, the Wikipedia article is a decent introduction. But these articles are aimed at those of you who want a little bit deeper mathematical understanding,...
Learning VHDL  Basics
Since FPGA are becoming more accessible to the hobbyist, learning how to use them can be really useful for certain applications, like DSP and video generation; moreover, engineers that are able to code in VHDL/Verilog are always requested on the job market.
In this tutorial I will cover the basics of Xilinx ISE and VHDL. I willl base my code on the Basys2 board from Digilent: it is really cheap (especially for students) and has a lot of features on board, as you can see from the picture...
Two jobs
For those of you following closely embeddedrelated and the other related sites, you might have noticed that I have been less active for the last couple of months, and I will use this blog post to explain why. The main reason is that I got myself involved into a project that ended up using a better part of my cpu than I originally thought it would.
edit  video of the event:
I currently have two jobs: one as an electrical/dsp engineer recycled as a web publisher and the other...
New Design  Finally!
For those of you who are familiar with my work, you already know that FPGARelated.com is not the only engineering web site that I publish. I also publish DSPRelated.com and EmbeddedRelated.com. Those two web sites have been on a new design for quite some time now and porting the new design to FPGARelated.com has been on my todo list for too long! I am glad today to announce that I have finally found the time to apply the more modern design to FPGARelated.com.
Thank you...
New Discussion Group: DSP & FPGA
I have just created a new discussion group for engineers implementing DSP functions on FPGAs. The creation of this group has been on my todo list for a long time. If you want to join the group, send a blank email to: fpgadspsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
As usual, it should take a few weeks before there are enough members for interesting discussions to get started.